Your Intuitive Eating Journey – a Letter to Your Loved One

Your Intuitive Eating Journey – a Letter to Your Loved One

Your Intuitive Eating Journey – a Letter to Your Loved One

KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

June 12th 2019

Embarking on the journey of intuitive eating can feel like a lonely and difficult road – especially when the world around you seems to be on a diet. Loved ones can remain locked into diet culture through no fault of their own. Let’s not forget and respect the fact that you and I were once there too. 

It can be most difficult when your own loved ones question or even criticise your journey. It’s usually only because they care about your health. So how do you master telling them about your journey, without them assuming that you’ve just let yourself go?

To make that easier, I’ve drafted an Intuitive Eating letter that you can adapt and share with your loved ones. It goes like this… 

“Dear…

You may have noticed that I have been eating differently over the last few weeks/months. I am embarking on a new journey that moves away from my old ways of eating and thinking about food. For X years/months I have been on and off of various different diets. This has been affecting me not only physically, but emotionally/mentally too.

I’m done with [delete or insert as appropriate] tearing myself apart, despising my body, my weight yo-yo-ing up and down and steadily increasing with every diet I try, restricting my eating and then binge eating, punishing myself for eating certain foods, eating differently to others, not enjoying food, being bound by rules to tell me what, when and how much to eat and not being able to trust myself to eat naturally and normally.

I’ve hit rock bottom. I simply need to do something different.

I am embarking on a new and kinder journey that focuses on my health and healthy habits, rather than body size and weight loss. My health or my worth is not determined by a number on the scales. My weight will settle in it’s happy and healthy place when I am focusing on these healthy habits. I am working with a Registered Dietitian who is specialised in helping me through these difficulties (a specialist intuitive eating coach). 

I am learning that weight is not centric to my health, and that the restrictions I placed on myself were fuelling my eating problems. They were turning me away from being kind and respecting my body and ultimately improving my health and happiness. I have also learned that the yo-yo-ing of my weight is actually linked to a higher risk of heart disease. The stress I faced most days around food and my body was not doing my mental health any good and it was distracting me from more important things in my life…[you could provide examples here].

My weight may fluctuate on this journey, and this does not mean that I am neglecting my health. You may even see me eating foods that I would previously have avoided or restricted myself from eating. Like cake and sausages! I am learning that eating a wide variety of different foods is healthy for my body and soul. I am learning that eating a salad does not make me healthy, and equally eating a cake does not make me unhealthy. I am learning to honour my hunger, respect my fullness, identify what foods actually satisfy me (versus what I think I ‘should’ be eating), reduce emotional eating and to separate my worth from my appearance – amongst many other things.

If my weight increases, that’s a sign that I am nourishing my body with an adequate amount of food for me. It’s a sign that I was previously eating in a way that was too restrictive for my body.

I understand that these concepts may be difficult to understand and may go against your own beliefs. They have been challenging for me too, but also make a lot of sense. I don’t expect you to fully understand my journey and I am pleased you’ve not had to experience the difficulties I have been through. I wouldn’t wish them on anyone. I expect you to accept and respect the journey that I am on so that I can improve my relationship with food, my body and ultimately improve my health, without judgement, criticism or distraction. 

Love …

x”

    This work is hard and being questioned or criticised by loved ones can make it even harder. You can’t expect they will understand it all at once (or at all) and it’s important to respect their concerns for your health. After all, they may not know any different at this stage. The most you can do is lead by example, educate and if any difficult questions arise, pass them onto me and I can help with a response.

    You’ve got this. Go easy on yourself. 

    Am I addicted to sugar?

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    5 steps to having better body image

    5 steps to having better body image

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD

    5 steps to having better body image

    KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

    May 14th 2019

    “I don’t like the way I look”

    “I wish I looked more like X”

    “Once I’ve lost weight I will feel more XXX”

    “Once I’ve lost this weight I will be able to XXX”

    “There’s something wrong with me”

    Are these things you hear yourself saying? I can certainly put my hands up to saying some of these things to myself previously.

    Nowadays, we live in a society that is more and more obsessed with appearance. Both teenagers and adults are flooded with images of society’s idea of “perfect” bodies. We see adverts of diets co-opted as “lifestyles” designed to “transform and sculpt”, compounding the message that we are not good enough as we are. That we need to shrink or change our bodies to feel more worthy, accepted, happy and to have better health.

    As a Registered non-diet Dietitian, specialising in Intuitive Eating, I work with clients to help them heal their relationship with food. Body image work comes into this frequently. This is because many of the food issues my clients experience, are underpinned by them trying to shrink or change their body.

    Image by Moose Kleenex

    What is body image and why does this matter?

    The Mental Health Foundation describe body image as “a term used to describe how we think and feel about our bodies”. As a society, we are becoming more aware of the impact of how we think and feel about our bodies on our health and wellbeing. In fact, just recently the Mental Health Foundation conducted an online survey of 4500 UK adults over the age of 18, and 1100 teenagers (aged 13-19). They found:

    • 1 in 5 adults (20%) felt shame about their bodies.
    • 34% of adults felt low or down and 19% felt disgusted because of their body image.
    • 13% (1 in 8) even experienced suicidal thoughts in relation to body image.
    • Just over one in five adults (22%) and 40% of teenagers said images on social media caused them to worry about their body image.

    So what is positive body image?

    Positive body image doesn’t have to mean floundering around half naked shouting to the world that you love your body (although that’s also totally okay). For most of my clients, it’s about getting them to a place where they are not actually thinking too much about their body image. Where they can be at weddings, parties, events and get involved in other activities without body image holding them back from being present and participating. As a Registered non-diet Dietitian, specialising in Intuitive Eating, I work with clients to help them heal their relationship with food. Body image work comes into this frequently. This is because many of the food issues my clients experience, are underpinned by them trying to shrink or change their body.

    Below I have outlined 5 steps you could take today, that may help improve your body image.

    5 steps to having better body image

    1. Adopt some self compassion

    We often find it easy to direct compassion towards a friend, animal or young child who is suffering. Perhaps we feel affected by their suffering, and have a strong desire to help them ease that discomfort. Self-compassion is about directing that compassion inwards to ourselves. Recognising our own suffering, not avoiding or disconnecting from it, and generating the desire to alleviate and heal that suffering with self-kindness (Neff 2003). This may sound a little spiritual, and if you’re not into that, stick with me here. There is some sound research to suggest that adopting some self-compassion may attenuate body image dissatisfaction.

    So how can you adopt some self-compassion?

    • Quit following #fitspo #fitspiration images on social media, and start following some #selflove and #selfcompassion quotes instead.
    • Give yourself permission to be imperfect. After all, there is no such thing as perfect!
    • Recognise that you’re not alone – 1 in 5 adults feel shame about their bodies.
    • Talk to yourself like you would your best friend that felt dissatisfied with their body.

    2) Ask yourself who’s profiting from body hatred?

    The diet industry is worth $60 Billion and is profiting from trying to cure you from a problem that really doesn’t exist. How are you fuelling into this and how else could you best spend your money?

    3) Get clued up on weight science, and understand that weight does not define your health

    This social requirement that we need to achieve an “ideal weight” is based on the misconception that we can completely control our body size. You may be surprised to learn that some of the most basic assumptions you hold about weight and health aren’t supported by scientific evidence. Misconceptions:

    • “It’s just calories in versus calories out right?”
    • “Surely shrinking your body shouldn’t be so hard, I’ve just not go the willpower”.  
    • “Thinner = healthier”

    Unfortunately, weight is not that simple. We know (and maybe you’ve experienced) that in the short term, weight loss is typically possible. But over the long-term the body has compensatory mechanisms that undermine its ability to maintain weight loss. Health is not dictated to by what the number says on the scales. You can read more about that here.

    4) Can you show your body some respect?

    You may not love or even like your body right now. But for now, how can you show it a basic level of respect? Here are some examples:

    • Nourishing it regularly with food that you enjoy
    • Wearing clothes that fit you and that don’t pinch
    • Taking your medications
    • Having regular medical and dental check ups
    • Move your body in a way that feels comfortable
    • Allow it adequate sleep and rest

    5) Notice how diet culture is deeply ingrained in our society

    Diet culture is everywhere. It teaches us that we’re not good enough as we are. That we have to live a life of constant monitoring, controlling our bodies, restricting ourselves, and over exercising. It’s not until we open our eyes to this messaging, that we can start to shut it out. Here are some examples of messages that promote negative body image that we are often not aware of:

    • The consistent diet advertisements – on Spotify, in the gym, in the doctors surgery, on the train, tube or bus, on TV.
    • The casual use of fat phobic language – jokes around the dinner table, in the office, on TV and in films.
    • The general assumption that larger people are lazy, lacking in will-power, incompetent, unclean and undisciplined.
    • The lack of body diversity in the media.
    • Public health campaigns that shout about the “obesity epidemic” and place blame on those people in larger bodies being a “burden” on the NHS. These indirectly stigmatise larger bodies and indirectly contribute to appearance-based bullying.
    • The way we talk about food – good/bad/healthy/unhealthy/guilty/indulgent/clean

    This work is hard so don’t expect to master is overnight. Consider how many months or years you have you been trying to change or manipulate your body? It’s normal for this work to take some time and it particularly difficult to embrace in a society that’s telling you otherwise. If you’re struggling with your body image it’s important that you seek support from a qualified professional who can point you in the right direction.

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD Am I addicted to sugar? KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian 1st May 2019 I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit.  Quitting seems logical solution, given that...

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    Am I addicted to sugar?

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

    1st May 2019

    I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit. 

    Quitting seems logical solution, given that it is often the advice for someone with drug and alcohol addiction. In this article I am going to break down what sugar addiction is, why you crave sugar and some tips to overcome feeling like you have a sugar addiction.

    Firstly, what is addiction?

    This is a complex question because the definition of addiction is controversial.

    In short, you can have two categories of addiction:

    1. A substance addiction such as drugs, alcohol or tobacco
    2. A non-substance behavioural addiction such as gambling

    It has been suggested that some foods with “addictive agents”, such as salt, fat and sugar, could result in people showing the same symptoms as someone with a drug addiction. There has even been media reports suggesting that sugar addiction is a thing, and that it’s as addictive as heroin and cocaine. But the reality is that there are not many studies that have examined sugar addiction specifically in humans – the studies that do exist have been carried out in rodents. 

    Sugar addiction – is it the same as being addicted to drugs?

    Chances are that you have already googled this. After reading a ton of contradictory information, you may think sugar addiction and drug addiction manifest the same symptoms.

    Well let’s look at it in detail.   

    If we were to go by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), it diagnoses a Substance Use Disorder (substances such as tobacco, alcohol, drugs) based on 11 symptoms. These can be grouped into four categories:

    • Impaired control: symptoms relate to cravings and a strong desire to use the drug or failed attempts of cutting back on drug use.
    • Social issues: symptoms relate to situations where the person’s work, home and social life is disrupted due to continued drug use.
    • Risky use: symptoms relate to a person’s continued use of the drug despite the known negative consequences.
    • Drug physiological effects: symptoms of tolerance (the body requires more of the drug to produce the same effect) and withdrawal (the body shows withdrawal symptoms when the drug is no longer in the body and a tolerance has developed

    So could some of those symptoms occur with a “sugar addiction”? After reading this, you may think so!

    For example:

    • Do I have cravings and a strong desire to eat sugary foods? Yes!
    • Have I repeatedly attempted to cut back or “quit” sugar? Yes!
    • Do I feel so “out of control” with food that I’m not in the mood to attend social events? Yes!

    But let’s pause for a second. For a substance use disorder diagnosis, the symptoms need to cause “significant impairment or distress”.

    And anyone who is experiencing significant distress such as this related to eating patterns, is more than likely going to be diagnosed with an overall eating disorder, which is very different to suggesting that someone is addicted to sugar in the same way that someone is addicted to drugs.

    Another key part of a diagnosis, is that the symptoms produce physiological effects. Drug taking can cause people to develop withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The good news is that there has never been a human study to show that sugar (or any nutrient for that matter, except for caffeine) produces tolerance or withdrawal effects. 

    So if “sugar addiction” isn’t a thing, why do I still crave it?

    Because

    1) Restriction

    The root cause of feeling out of control around food is restriction, not food addiction. We know this because as soon as we deprive ourselves from a food, we want the food even more and there a number of studies to support this (see my recent article with the research on how to stop food obsession). We subsequently eat more of it than we would have if we’d just allowed ourselves to eat in the first instance! Following food rules that restricts intake of our “forbidden foods” can lead to excessively focussing on those foods which just exacerbates disordered eating.

    You may have heard that in animal studies, sugar is addictive. However, these studies fail to emphasise, that the animals have actually been deprived of sugar. So of course they ended up “bingeing” on it when they were allowed it again. The group of rats that were deprived, actually ate the same amount of sugar in a 12 hour period compared to a group of rats that weren’t deprived over a 24 hour period. What’s the moral here? Eat the sugar!

    2) Food is pleasurable (which is not a bad thing!) and needed for survival

    Whilst animal studies might show that the brain reacts in a similar way to when drugs are taken, they fail to recognise that food is something that is needed for survival. Sugar is not a drug – it’s the most basic fuel source we need to stay alive! It is therefore supposed to bring joy. Our brain needs glucose to make sure we can carry out all the required biological functions to keep us alive. So how could we be addicted to something that we need to function?

    The same centres light up when we have sex, when we stroke a puppy or even when we win or anticipate winning money. Does that mean we are addicted to sex, puppies or money? No.

    Where does that leave us?

    Studies in this field are still in their infancy, and of the research that does exist, it is limited to animals.

    Also, it is difficult to confirm that sugar, as a standalone nutrient, is addictive as we rarely consume this on its own. Sugar is in starchy foods such as potatoes, breads and pastas as well as in fruit, vegetables and dairy products. Things we usually eat in conjunction with many other things!

    In saying all of this, I do not want to lessen the struggles that some people may feel they have around food. It is still possible to feel “out of control” around sugar and overeat sugary foods, but it is unlikely to be addiction. It’s more likely to be rooted in restriction.

    If you feel this is you, Intuitive Eating is a gentle evidence-based approach that doesn’t require going cold turkey. This framework has helped people reduce overeating or binge eating because it teaches how to identify hunger and fullness signals without restricting food.

    Intuitive Eating requires time and patience, but also the right support from someone qualified. A Registered Dietitian and Certified Intuitive Eating Counsellor is a good place to start. If you’d like to know more about what you can start to do today to overcome your difficulties with feeling addicted to sugar, check out my free 20-minute audio download below. 

    Please note: if after reading this, you think you might have an eating disorder, I encourage you to visit your GP to discuss this.

    References throughout text.  

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD Am I addicted to sugar? KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian 1st May 2019 I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit.  Quitting seems logical solution, given that...

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    How to Stop Binge Eating at Night

    How to Stop Binge Eating at Night

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    How to Stop Binge Eating at Night  

    KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

    April 3rd 2019

    For people who are still on the diet train or who have recently just stepped off it, we know that dieting can result in the vicious cycle of restriction – deprivation – cravings – binge eating.  

    Have you ever experienced binge eating, and more specifically wondered how to stop binge eating at night? Because this is a common time of the day that some of my client’s experience it.  

    Firstly, let’s get one thing straight.  

    What is a binge?   

    Because there is a difference between a ‘subjective binge’ (what YOU define as a binge), and an ‘objective binge’ (what a psychologist uses to define an Eating Disorder).

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) (as diagnosed by a psychologist) is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a person who regularly binge eats a large quantity of food in a discrete time period with a sense of feeling out of control (1). The binge eating episodes are usually accompanied with three or more following:  

    • Eating past the point of uncomfortable 
    • Eating alone due to embarrassment  
    • Eating more rapidly than usual  
    • Feeling upset and guilty afterwards 
    • Eating a large amount of food when not physically hungry 

    If you suspect you may have BED, I encourage you to consult your GP for an assessment.   

    However, just because you may not meet the ‘criteria’ for BED, doesn’t mean you aren’t experiencing suffering or deserve help. A ‘subjective’ binge eating episode may still be accompanied with embarrassment, guilt, eating rapidly, eating a large amount of food…. but not enough food to be considered an ‘objective binge’ for a psychologist to diagnose a BED. A little silly I know.  

    In this article, I refer to some reasons why you may be experiencing binge eating, and in particular, at night. I also provide recommendations for how to stop binge eating at night. This article is targeted at those experiencing a ‘subjective binge’, without a diagnosed BED. 

     

    Restriction during the day: 

    It is common in diet culture to label foods such as rice cakes and salad as “safe” to eat during the day and “not allow” more substantial meals such as pasta and sandwiches.  

    Any time food is out of bounds, it puts it on a pedestal increasing our desire to want to eat that food. There are two ways in which foods can be out of bounds: 

    • Physically: the diet restricts it. 
    • Psychologically: we attach a moralistic value to that food and label is as bad, unhealthy.  

    We then start to desire that food even more, because we tell ourselves we can’t have it … and when we do have it, we’re likely to feel guilt, and eat more than if we’d just allowed it in the first place! (4) (5)

    A 2001 study showed that when people were forbidden sweets that were considered “novel”, the attraction to eat them was heightened compared to people who were allowed to eat the “novel” sweet (6). And this idea rings true for any food, not just high sugar foods. A study of kids showed that when they were restricted either sweets or fruit, both groups ate more of the restricted foods (including more fruit!) when they were given the opportunity, compared to a group of kids who weren’t restricted at all (7).  

    AND/OR

    Tiredness: 

    • If you’ve had a really long day or if you had a poor night’s sleep. 
    • If you’ve done a lot of exercise or if you simply have too much going on.  

    Being tired makes it difficult to tap into hunger and satiety cues (2). Studies show that people who are unable to get a full night’s sleep (less than six hours) have increased ghrelin (which is the hormone that stimulates hunger) and decreased leptin (which is the hormone that tells us when we are full). These hormones dictate how much we would eat in a day.  

    Further to this, studies have shown that tiredness can increase food intake by 400 calories in a day (3). A systematic review that analysed 11 different studies found on average that people who had between 3.5 to 5.5 hours sleep the night before ate an additional 385 calories that day compared to when they’d slept at least seven hours.  

    AND/OR 

    Hunger:

    Many clients I meet that are struggling to stop binge eating at night, are actually just hungry and haven’t tuned into the sensations of hunger. 

    That bowl of cereal at 8am, and salad at lunchtime, simply hasn’t cut it. Of course they walk through the door ready to eat the house down. 

    So this, coupled with our hunger hormone ghrelin being revved up in the evening, means we’re in a position where we’re likely to binge on foods that are either physically restricted (through a diet), or psychologically restricted (through good/bad food labelling, coupled with guilt).  

    If when we get home from a long day there is a food in the cupboard that’s “not allowed”, of course we are going to want to eat all of it … because we’re hungry, potentially restricted ourselves from eating that food (physically or psychologically) and we’re tired!   

    So how can you stop binge eating at night? 

    Here I am sharing my experiences of working with 1:1 clients and a couple of the ways in which they have managed to stop binge eating at night.  

    Meeting basic needs: 

    This means two things:

    1. Get organised for the week so that you feel in control, can schedule regular eating patterns and eat according to hunger.  

    For example: 

    – Making sure you have a stocked-up fridge with food that can be easily prepared and/or eaten without much fuss (unless cooking at night helps you to unwind!).

    – Setting boundaries at work, or with friends/family, so you don’t take too much on.  

    How? 

    If Sunday meal prepping is your thing, go ahead and make yourself a few days worth of dinner and lunches ahead of time. But if that doesn’t sounds right for you, take yourself on a shopping trip (or do an online shop) and stock your fridge and cupboard with snacks and fresh produce that don’t require too much preparation. Ready-to-eat meals that you can easily heat and eat each week night are great too! 

    Check your diary at the end of each week for the week ahead to ensure you’ve not overloaded yourself. Schedule in down time, just like you would any other activity. 

    If you’re struggling to eat according to hunger,  check out my FREE download with a recorded audio guide and actionable workbook which tackles this. 

    2. Find activities/hobbies that make you feel good and check that you are meeting the basics. 

    • What is it that makes you feel amazing?  

    Having a proper night’s sleep? Spending time out in nature? Making space for you time in the week? Curling up on the couch with a good book? Getting out in nature? A bubble bath? A pedicure? Sweating it out in the gym? Spending time with your fur baby? Spending time with your human baby?  

    Whatever it is, ensure you are meeting your basics (sleep, setting boundaries, managing stress), but also doing things that fill your heart with joy and that help calm your mind. These types of activities are a great way to make sure that we can deal with emotions such as tiredness, anxiety, boredom, loneliness or anger without using food to suppress that feeling. Emotional eating is very common and something I have written about in more detail here 

    3. Stop labelling foods as good and bad. 

    To create a healthy relationship with food, we have to stop describing food in moralistic terms. Because you know what? There is not one food that will make us healthy or unhealthy. 

    Try to neutralise your language around food, and label foods as what they are. If it’s a croissant, call it a croissant. If it’s a carrot, call is a carrot or vegetable. Neither are good, or bad. They are just food. 

    Stopping binge eating at night is a process. It takes time to figure out what triggers it and the sorts of things you can do to avoid it. But hopefully after reading this, you have a few ideas up your sleeve. And just remember, if after reading this you still find yourself struggling, do not need to beat yourself up. Move on and be kind to yourself.

    This is hard work and the first step is acknowledging it (which you clearly have if you are reading this). So, I encourage you to keep being compassionate and patient as you take these next brave steps to finding how you’re going to do this important work.  

    You can sign up to my 7 Steps to Find Food Peace and Food Freedom with an audio guide and workbook to get started on how to stop binge eating at night. 

    References 

    (1) National Health Services (NHS). (2017). Overview – Binge Eating Disorder. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/binge-eating/. 

    (2) Shlisky, J. D., Hartman, T. J., Kris-Etherton, P. M., Rogers, C. J., Sharkey, N. A., & Nickols-Richardson, S. M. (2012). Partial Sleep Deprivation and Energy Balance in Adults: An Emerging Issue for Consideration by Dietetics Practitioners. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 112(11), 1785-1797. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2012.07.032 

    (3Al Khatib, H. K., Harding, S. V., Darzi, J., & Pot, G. K. (2016). The effects of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71(5), 614-624. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.201 

    (4) Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., & Jansen, A. (2008). Do not eat the red food! Prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children. Appetite, 50(2-3), 560.doi:10.1016/j.appet.2007.09.038 

    (5) Keeler, C. L., Mattes, R. D., & Tan, S. (2015). Anticipatory and reactive responses to chocolate restriction in frequent chocolate consumers. Obesity, 23(6), 1130-1135. doi:10.1002/oby.21098 

    (6) Mann, T., & Ward, A. (2001). Forbidden fruit: Does thinking about a prohibited food lead to its consumption? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(3), 319-327. doi:10.1002/eat.1025 

    (7Jansen, E., Mulkens, S., Emond, Y., & Jansen, A. (2008). From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Appetite, 51(3), 570-575. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.04.012 

     

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD Am I addicted to sugar? KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian 1st May 2019 I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit.  Quitting seems logical solution, given that...

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    Why you don’t need to stop eating sugar to improve your health

    Why you don’t need to stop eating sugar to improve your health

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD

    Why you don’t need to stop eating sugar to improve your health 

    KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

    March 3rd 2019

    First it was salt. Then fat. Then carbohydrates.  

    Now we’re told to stop eating sugar.

    All these foods have been demonised at one point or another over the years and we’ve been taught to fear them due to the implications they can have on our health. But sadly, this is more fear mongering, than fact. 

    Let’s talk about the facts, specifically regarding sugar.  

    Even though some “wellness experts” would have you believe that we need to “stop eating sugar” completely for the sake of our health, it is actually nothing to be feared, unless it is consumed in huge quantities (like anything, really!). 

    The problem with the idea that we should “stop eating sugar” is that not all sugars are equal. If we stop eating sugar, we’d be quitting entire food groups and all the important vitamins and minerals found in them! 

    Hang on, I thought sugar was bad, because it’s the stuff in cakes, biscuits and sweets, I hear you ask?  

    Yes and no.  

    Yes, there is sugar in our favourite sweet treats, but this is usually refined sugar (table sugar). Consuming this type of sugar in small amounts is not harmful to our health (1)It is recommended that we consume sweet foods with meals as much as possible to protect our teeth, however, cutting out sugar from our diet all together could backfire and we could end up eating more than desired. Especially in those who want to stop food obsession, or who struggle with binge eating and want to stop emotional eating (2, 3, 4).  

    The other type of sugar that shouldn’t be feared, is the naturally occurring sugar found in fruits, vegetables, dairy products and wholegrains. But more about these two things later.   

    Let’s first look at what a sugar actually is. I apologise, but there is a little bit of chemistry ahead. 

    The chemistry…

    A sugar is something that is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (a sugar molecule). The number of these atoms and how they are arranged, will determine the kind of sugar it ishow it behaves in food and then how it interacts once it is in your body. 

    There are many different types of sugars found in foods. 

    For example, the sugar found in dairy products (lactose) is different to the sugar in fruit (fructose) – they are completely different sugars and digested in different ways, but they are sugars nonetheless. 

    If we were told to quit eating sugar, we’d essentially be eliminating dairy and fruit out of our diets!  

    And we’d also be eliminating cereals, pasta and rice … because the complex carbohydrates found in those foods are also made up sugar molecules – lots of them (hence the name “complex”).  

    Sugar, at its most basic level, is what our body needs for fuel.

    But what about blood sugar levels?

    One reason why there is fear surrounding sugar is because of its impact on our Blood Glucose Levels (BGLs). You might have heard someone say “oh don’t eat that, it makes your blood sugar spike”?? This is semi-true. Yes, dramatic spikes in our BGLs can affect our energy levels. Also, eating foods that are high in sugar and low in fibre could cause hunger to reappear more quickly after eatingBut this all depends on the type of the sugar that is in the food and what we eat the sugar with (e.g. protein and fats).   

    We can measure how quickly a carbohydrate food makes your BGLs rise by using an international standard called the Glycaemic Index (GI) (5). Carbohydrates are rated on a scale between 0 – 100 depending on how quickly the body breaks it down to be used for energy.  

    Foods with a higher GI are broken down more quickly and can cause a sharp rise in BGLs – things like a glass of sugary drink on an empty stomachwhite bread, white rice and white potatoes. However, who just eats a plate of white rice, or a whole lot of bread without a topping? No judgement if you do, but most of us prefer these with other foods most of the time. We usually eat these foods with some proteins and fats which naturally lower the GI.  

    Foods with a low GI number break down more slowly and help to keep your BGLs stable – things like wholegrain bread and pasta, fresh fruit, lentils and legumes, yoghurt and milk. In fact, chocolate is low GI because it contains a high amount of fat and protein… I bet you never realised that!  

    So, what’s important is the type of sugar and what we pair it with, to determine its nutritional quality and impact on your body, rather than tarnishing all sugars with the same brush!  

    Naturally occurring sugars vs “free sugars”  

    Now that we know what a sugar is, we can talk about naturally occurring sugar vs “free sugars”.  

    Natural sugars, as the name would suggest, are those already found in the food. These often come with a host of other beneficial nutrients. For example, milk and yoghurt contains the sugar lactose as well as calcium and protein. Fresh fruit contains fructose, as well as vitamin C and fibre.  

    So, what exactly are “free sugars”?  

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines it as those that are added in by either the consumer or the food manufacturer and the sugars naturally found in fruit juice, honey, syrup and fruit juice concentrates. Things like bakery items, cakes, cookies and soft drinks. It also includes the table sugar you add to your coffee in the morning.  

    The WHO recommends limiting free sugars to no more than 10% of total daily energy intake (about 10 teaspoons) to reduce the risk of dental carries, chronic disease and poor diet quality (6). 

    What about alternative sweeteners then?  

    If we’re told that we need to reduce our sugar intake, should we turn to sugar substitutes instead? Well there are loads of sugar alternatives being used, many so that recipes can claim they’re “sugar free”, but it’s difficult to know whether they’re any better than just your regular old table sugar. 

    Let’s have a look at some. 

    Maple Syrup 

    What it is: More commonly used as a weekend breakfast item, but it is also used in recipes as a table sugar replacementThe syrup is formed after the sap is extracted from the wild maple tree and concentrated. 

    Nutrients: Contains traces of vitamins and some minerals such as potassium, iron and calcium. 

    GI: 54 (7).  

    Brown rice malt syrup 

    What it is: An expensive replacement often used by people who follow a “sugar free” lifestyleIt is produced by cooking brown rice flour or starch and breaking it down into simpler sugars to produce a liquid.  

    Nutrients: It is low in fructose and could be suitable replacement for people with fructose malabsorption.  

    GI: 98 (7)  

    Agave syrup 

    What it is: A very sweet sugar alternative with minimal impact on BGLs. Processed from the agave plant grown in the south west of the USA and northern parts of South America. 

    Nutrients: Is high in fructose, which could cause digestive distress for people with fructose intolerance. Has slightly higher calories than table sugar, 60 calories per tablespoon compared to 40 calories for the same amount of table sugar (8). 

    GI: 10 (7) 

    Dates 

    What it is: A whole fruit  

    Nutrients: Contains fibre, potassium (essential for maintaining fluid balance in the body and controlling electrical activity in the heart) and magnesium (essential for proper nerve function, muscle contraction and regulation of blood glucose level and blood pressure) 

    GI: 50 (7) 

    Stevia 

    What it is: Made from the leaves of a native plan in Paraguay in South America, is often used in coffee as a replacement for table sugar in coffee.  

    Nutrients: It is much sweeter than table sugar, with negligible calories and does not raise blood sugar.  

    GI of 0 

    Coconut sugar 

    What it is: Made from the sap in the flower buds of a coconut palm. The sap is boiled to allow the water to evaporate and then dried to form a concentrate. It is  

    Nutrients: Contains potassium, iron, zinc, and calcium according to research conducted by the Philippines Government research body, but you need to eat a lot to make a difference (9). It also contains the same number of calories as white sugar. 

    GI: low GI of 54 (7) 

    So, while there are many pros and cons on just this short list of the many alternatives that are available, the reality is that they are all still sugars and most of them contain energy, with little vitamin or minerals (10). And whilst sweeteners are low in calories, there is some evidence that sweeteners may actually increase our appetite (11). 

    Summary

    So, with all the scaremongering around sugar being harmful, the reality is that a diet that has a limited intake of sugar (whatever sugar that may be) is not harmful for a healthy individual.  

    There are many foods with naturally occurring sugars that contain nutrients that are highly beneficial, so let’s not go cutting those just yet.

    And then as for those free sugars which have little nutritive value? Well, a little bit of honey on toast or glazed on roast carrots can fit into a healthy diet. These foods are there for the enjoyment and satisfaction of eating and cutting them out completely could backfire and result in food obsession and binge eating. After all, who was it that once said a spoonful of sugar helps the medicine go down?   

    Note: this article is not designed to replace individual advice from your healthcare provider.  

    References 

    1. The British Dietetics Association. (2017). Sugar. Retrieved from https://www.bda.uk.com/foodfacts/sugarAccessed on 1/03/2019.  

    2. Keeler, Chelsey L., Richard D. Mattes, and Sze‐Yen Tan. “Anticipatory and reactive responses to chocolate restriction in frequent chocolate consumers.” Obesity 23.6 (2015): 1130-1135. 

    3. Konttinen H, Haukkala A, Sarlio-Lahteenkorva S, Silventoinen K, Jousilahti P. Eating styles, self-control and obesity indicators. The moderating role of obesity status and dieting history on restrained eating. Appetite (2009): 53:131–4.  

    4. Jansen, Esther, et al. “From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty: Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children.” Appetite 51.3 (2008): 570-575.

    5. International Organisation for Standardisation (2010). Food products — Determination of the glycaemic index (GI) and recommendation for food classification. Retrieved from https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:26642:ed-1:v1:en. Accessed on 1/03/2019.  

    6. WHO. (2015). Sugar intakes of Adults and Children. Retrieved from. https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/guidelines/sugars_intake/en/. Accessed on 3/03/2019. 

    7. The University of Sydney. (2017). Search for the Glycemic Index. Retrieved from http://www.glycemicindex.com/foodSearch.phpAccessed on 1/03/2019.  

    8. Web MD. (2014). Agave: Calories, Nutrition Facts, and More. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/diet/features/the-truth-about-agave#1Accessed on 1/03/2019.  

    9. Medical News Today. (2018). Coconut sugar. Is it good for you? Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323047.php. Accessed on 1/03/2019. 

    10. NHS Choices. (2016). Are sweeteners safe? Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/are-sweeteners-safe/. Accessed on 1/03/2019.  

    11. Web MD. (2018). Is there such a thing as healthy sugar? Retrieved from  https://blogs.webmd.com/food-fitness/20181004/is-there-such-thing-as-healthy-sugar. Accessed on 1/03/2019.  

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD Am I addicted to sugar? KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian 1st May 2019 I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit.  Quitting seems logical solution, given that...

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    This may be the reason why you can’t stop binge eating

    This may be the reason why you can’t stop binge eating

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD

    This may be the reason why you can’t stop binge eating 

    KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian

    January 30th 2019

    As a result of the diet culture world we live in, it has become all too common to live by “food rules”.  

    These rules are usually self-imposed and dictate the types of foods that should be consumed, how much and when. Whether that’s only eating “clean” foods or eating a certain number of calories at each meal or only eating at specific times of the day, the rules can be subconscious, and very rigid.  

    So, what if I said to you that it was time to ditch all these rules and give yourself unconditional permission to eat whatever you like?  

    Would your response be … 

    a) “I already do allow all foods in my life, but I also give myself permission NOT to eat if I don’t feel like it.

    or 

    b) “ummm, you mean everything like full fat dairy, chips and pastries? But, but, but … what about my health?”

    If you answered a) well, good on you! You are someone who knows that all foods can be part of a varied diet, but at the same time, will know when NOT to eat and consciously choose not to do so. You are someone who does not let food control you, because you know that all food is available at any time when you need it.   

    If you answered b), then you’re not alone. This article will talk about how we can incorporate all food in your life in a mindful, conscious way, without fear of eating chaotically and feeling out of control around food.   

    In order to create a healthy relationship with food one of the first things we must do is give ourselves permission to eat all foods. That’s right. All foods. Without restriction.  

    Internationally run self-care retreat, Green Mountain at Fox Run, states really nicely that: “many women aren’t totally sold on the idea that we’re allowed to eat what we want at first, thinking, “That’s exactly what brought me here to begin with.” But they do usually all agree that the alternative approach of restriction and deprivation hasn’t worked so well either.”

     Yes, allowing all foods to be consumed may sound scary and downright crazy, especially because diet culture has led us to believe that some foods are “good and some are “bad”. But it’s important to remember that by doing this and becoming an intuitive eater is not about letting go of your health.  

    It’s about making all foods normal, so you can enjoy eating all foods in moderation without episodes of binge eating or feeling out of control. 

    Having rigid rules around forbidden foods, paradoxically leads to greater restrictions, which then increases the chances of binge eating. However, if we remove the food rules and allow all foods (especially previously forbidden ones) in our life the urgency and intensity to eat decreases (1). This phenomenon is called habituation, where repeated exposure to something eventually loses its appeal. Habituation can actually be experienced in other facets of our life. For example, when you buy a new car and first drive it out of the dealership, it’s exciting. But eventually, the novelty of the new car wears off.  

    This can also be applied in the context of food. So, for dieters, this means that the more a certain food is restricted, the higher the desire it is to eat because of the lack of exposure to it. If we can give ourselves full permission to eat all foods, then the “eat-this-now-before-you-never-let-yourself-eat-this-again” mentality is likely to dissipate.  

    Interestingly, studies show that people who follow food rules generally display perfectionist traits (2). And that makes sense, considering that perfectionism is where a person will place large emphasis on organisation and preciseness, set high personal expectations and be self-critical if personal accomplishments are not met (2).  

    So now that we understand why we need to give ourselves unconditional permission to eat, let’s break it down into simple steps of how to actually do it.  

    Step 1: Change of mindset: No food is morally better than another 

    Food is food! Let’s not label it as “good” or “bad” or demonise calories. Seeing all foods as equal, means your choice to eat a certain thing is not emotionally driven. So that means deciding to eat a cookie is equal to deciding to eat a salad. Neither one of those food choices has a higher moral value. If you want to eat the cookie, eat the cookie. If you want to eat the salad, eat the salad!  

    Step 2: Identify your “forbidden” food and practice giving yourself permission to eat it 

    Is there a particular food that you’ve previously not allowed yourself to have? Let’s name an example. Say your once “forbidden food” was ice cream. It’s now time to give yourself full permission to allow ice cream back into your life.  

    For some clients, this is scary. They feel that if they give themselves permission to eat their forbidden food, they may never stop eating it.  

    So how do we manage this?  

    Firstly, when giving ourselves permission to eat, don’t do it when hungry! Maybe try this 30mins – 1hour after a meal. Also, perhaps try this in an environment where you feel safe, such as at work, in a restaurant, at someone else’s house, before bringing it into the home.  

    So, let’s use the ice-cream example. When you desire ice-cream, pause and check in with yourself about what is driving this desire. Are you sad, tired, angry, bored? Is it just convenient to have it?  

    Then have a think about the quality of the ice-cream. How will it make you feel afterwards?  

    Once you’ve checked in on these things, if you still decide to eat the icecream, then do so mindfully. That is, slowing down, getting rid of any distractions and truly tuning in as you take each mouthful. As you take bites, think about the texture, taste and smell. Try to really be in the present moment throughout the whole eating experience. 

    Then once you’ve finished, carry on with your day and don’t give it another thought. A big part of this process is not allowing food to occupy our minds and think about it anymore than we have to.  

    Step 3: Make a plan for how you’re going to include the “forbidden foods” back into your life 

    Now that you know you can have your icecream whenever you choose, plan out when you would like to practice eating mindfully with it. This helps to avoid eating it impulsively. And remember, this is practice and it’s normal to not get it perfect! Some days you may end up eating more of the icecream than you would have liked, but that’s perfectly fine! This is about gaining confidence that you can trust your body and discover that no one food has power over you.   

    Giving yourself permission is a process. And it takes practiceIf there are days where you overeat, instead of being critical, get curious about what was going on that day. The key is not to beat yourself up over it! After all, there are much worse things you could do than eat some chocolate!  

    For more on how to stop binge eating, how to stop food obsession, emotional eating, stress eating, yo-yo dieting, and how to start intuitive eating check out my FREE download. This will guide you through some of the first steps to support you through your food problems. You will learn how to stop food obsession, and how to start intuitive eating

    References 

    1. Tribole E, Resch E. Intuitive Eating, 3rd ed. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press; 2012 
    2. Brown, A. J., Parman, K. M., Rudat, D. A., & Craighead, L. W. (2012). Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules. Eating Behaviors, 13(4), 347-353. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2012.05.011 

     

    Am I addicted to sugar?

    RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD Am I addicted to sugar? KATHERINE KIMBER, Registered Dietitian 1st May 2019 I am often asked by clients whether sugar addiction is a real thing and if so, whether they should go cold turkey to quit.  Quitting seems logical solution, given that...

    read more